It mostly depends on your server's hardware, operating system, also the setting you have for each of the services you're running; such as files and connections allowed open at once, and input/output data transaction sizes, etc.
If your server is using MySQL, have a quick read through:https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/table-size-limit.html
The effective maximum table size for MySQL databases is usually determined by operating system constraints on file sizes, not by MySQL internal limits. The following table lists some examples of operating system file-size limits. This is only a rough guide and is not intended to be definitive. For the most up-to-date information, be sure to check the documentation specific to your operating system.
Operating System -- File-size Limit
Win32 w/ FAT/FAT32 -- 2GB/4GB
Win32 w/ NTFS -- 2TB (possibly larger)
32-bit -- 2GB (LFS: 4GB)
Linux 2.4+ (using ext3 file system) -- 4TB
Solaris 9/10 -- 16TB
MacOS X w/ HFS+ -- 2TB
NetWare w/NSS file system -- 8TB
Expanding upon that, here is another link that summarizes the first link a bit more:http://nickduncan.co.za/maximum-mysql-database-size/
...my max database size can be as much as 281,474,976,710,655 bytes which If Iâ€™m not mistaken, equates to 256 terabytes. With this being said, I think we are going to run into system limitations rather than MySQL limitations...